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Axiomatic Panbiogeography

offers an application of incidence geometry to historical biogeography by defining collection localities as points, tracks as lines and generalized tracks as planes.
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Incidence Geometry
Composite Construction
Orthogenesis
Quaternion Algebraic Geom
Vicariance
Primate Vicariances
Individual Track Construc
Generalized Tracks
Taxogeny
Nodes
Edges
Distributions
Pit-Vipers
Trees
Caecilians
GyrinophilusPseudotriton
Desmognathus
Urspelerpes
Erimystax
Plethodon
Eurycea
Mushrooms
Lizards
Crotalus
Other Salamanders
Salamandridae
Elaphe
Lampropeltis
Pseudoeurycea
Turtles
Ambystoma
Snakes
Elapids
Spiders
Ants
Butterflies and Moths
Crawfish
Isopod
Sculpins
Aneides
Noturus
Ambloplites
Frogs&Toads
Plants
Ostracods
Leavenworthia
Kinosternidae
Necturus
Phacelia
Odonates
Propositions
CREADer
Areas
Main Massings
Geology
Track Analysis and MetaCo
Martitrack Panbiogeograph
Applications
Work
Replies to Criticism
Multimodel Selection
Search Encounter
Cenomanian
TinkerPopPanbiogeography
Track Analysis beyond Pan
Freshwater Cottus -- Sculpins


Cottus carolinae may have moved to freshwater while SA abuted NA and Eurycea lucifuga formed in situ and Anedies aeneus differentiated.  The narrow track differences of these three suggested a generalized track capable of organizing general distributions between the East and West of the US.  This also displays the "projective" axiomatic space first noticed in Eurycea.
Aneides flavipunctatus - Cottus gulosus
Aneides ferreus - Cottus perplexus
Aneides hardii -disjunct- Cottus bairdii(west)
Aneides lugubris - Cottus asper
Aneides vagrans - Cottus klamathensis
Aneides aeneus - Cottus  carolinae







A panbiogeographic synthesis may thus assist in deciding the status of the word "Plethodon"

A spanning infinity would suggest the former and an embedded infintiy the latter.