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Axiomatic Panbiogeography

offers an application of incidence geometry to historical biogeography by defining collection localities as points, tracks as lines and generalized tracks as planes.
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Surprisingly little information has been published on the galvanic negative cathodic response kinesis in the Ostracoda. Talbot Waterman (1961) mentions the behavior in a general context.


“For those

primarily interested in the conscious aspects of behavior,” that is to say some had thought that the reflexes may not have been such an instinct – the question is whether they are also cooperative games.


’ By behavior we mean the general 
bodily movements of organisms. These are not sharply distin- 
guishable from the internal physiological processes ; this will come 
forth clearly in the present work.


So a question is, is what is the internal physiological processes that account for ostracod galvanism?


‘we need a knowledge of the laws con- 
trolling them (“behavior”), of the same sort as our knowledge of the laws of 
NETLOGO provides a tool within which a circuit of observation and modeling can commence towards a description of these laws as arise directly from the moving force of electronic flow. In other words how does the actual force of electrolysis affect the behavioral changes that are accomplished  during the reaction to cathodic sources and sinks in the environment. So how does cathodic galvanism effect the increasly clear regulatory evidence or how can an experimental cycle of observation and modeling increase the understanding of the regulation of behavior?  NETLOGO provides a great tool to increase this understanability and aggregate an understanding through a greater knowedlge accumulation over scientific experimental and observation time.

The cataphoresis might of course act in some way as a stimulus to

induce the observed active movements of the ciha. This is apparently

the view toward which Carlgren (1899, 1905 a) and Pearl (1900) are

incKned. This is of course a theory of a radically different character

from that which we have been considering. Just how this effect would

be produced through the known physical action of the current has not

been shown.

An interesting possibility is that cataphoresis was the selection sorting filter force through which the genes that underlie the behavior were fit for? Are there situations in the chemical environment of ostracodes that present cathodic flows?

due to the electrolytic effect of the current on the fluid containing the

animals (Loeb and Budgett, 1897). The water of course contains elec-

trolytes. These are separated by the current into their component ions,

and the products of this electrolysis may be deposited on opposite poles

of a body immersed in the fluid. There is some reason to suppose that

an alkaH may be deposited on that portion of the surface of the infusorian

where the current is entering its protoplasm (the anodic surface), an

acid where it is leaving the protoplasm (the cathodic surface). The

relative amount of such action is unknown, but the suggestion is made

that the observed effects of the current are due to these chemicals.’The electrolytic currents of rocks exposed in water may provide the cathodic stimulus environment in which selections and moving forces applied. Could variable evaporation of brackish to salt water with changing concentrations of salt result in different electrolytic flows regimes that provide the selection pressure to effect evolution of cathodic induced behavior (cathodic motion may be a benefit to finding fluctuating water volumes and thus dynamic conditions in which new niches may be found vs static situations that just dry up? (difference of salt concentrations effects electrolytic current not just simple single evaporation and concentration which effects a single current direction rather than an osciiliation from which the cathodic galvanism provides a vector through.)
”On the Earth's surface, especially in the ocean, numerous electromagnetic and electrostatic poles exist and consequently create their force fields. Some of them are stationary and have been known for long time. Others are of transitory nature and come into existence due to geological and chemical processes, like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hydrocarbon synthesis, etc. These fields influence the dynamics of the oceanic water, which is in fact an electrolyte containing micro-dispersed particles.”

Paris, 14 October 2011

Plate tectonics may control reversals in the Earth's magnetic field

The Earth's magnetic field has reversed many times at an irregular rate throughout its history. Long periods without reversal have been interspersed with eras of frequent reversals. What is the reason for these reversals and their irregularity? Researchers from CNRS and the Institut de Physique du Globe(1) have shed new light on the issue by demonstrating that, over the last 300 million years, reversal frequency has depended on the distribution of tectonic plates on the surface of the globe. This result does not imply that terrestrial plates themselves trigger the switch over of the magnetic field. Instead, it establishes that although the reversal phenomenon takes place, in fine, within the Earth's liquid core, it is nevertheless sensitive to what happens outside the core and more specifically in the Earth's mantle. This work is published on 16 October 2011 in Geophysical Research Letters.

After selecting the cathodic and anodic individuals in a single generation the F1 was tested in the same apparatus used to separate the oppositely moving individuals and a quite dramatically different behavior resulted.  It may be a case that ostracods generally move very slowly as a population towards an electrolytic current but that individuals can attain a the trait of a fast response that decreases in response as movement forward proceeds.  This will mean that ostracods could possess a heritable trait to track earth changes in magnetic activity – perhaps towards moving in the direction of tectonic activity?

Zero entry column removed

Can the metacommunity concept explain why ostracods are evolutionarily successful as parthogenetic clones?

The  metacommunity notion is so new that it is hard to say just what it is and what concepts it relies on or does not (ref).  Pulliam in commenting beyond Holt tended to think that the idea shows that Hutchinson was mistaken when asserting that the realized niche is smaller than the fundamental niche when competition is involved. Nonetheless,  this early work on metacommunites showed that sink populations with lambda <1 could exist provided there was some BIDE dispersal from sources with lambda >1.

The question addressed here is  if and can,  a more realistic ostracod metacommunity structure with a population dynamic that extends the reach of the metacommunity (competitors and predators) to global biogeographic scales explain how the supposedly inferior (relative to the cost of sex) parthenogenic ostracods have survived geological time to persist at present,  in a not insignificant number.

So much work on ostracod parthenogenic stratagies has been undertaken recently (ref) that some think an explanation of their persistence is in order(ref).  Here I suggest an entirely different mechanism (physical not biological) that explains the near incredible longevity of the ostracod clade.

It has been known for quite a while that ostracods are cathodically kinesisetic and yet there is little research on what this behavior is , how it functions and what are its genetic bases are and were.

I have observed different individual species responses to the same electric fields and different variations of response within species. 

Faraday predicted (1850?) that the ocean (containing salt water) could act as a inducer of the Earth magnetic field and predicted its existence in the Thames that was later proved extant (1950)

Therefore I hypothesize that ostracods form complex source-sink-population-structured-patterns  regionally that track changes in the ocean currents, wandering poles and pole reversals. Pole reversals provide a complex topolgocal inversion in the population dynamics that can convert all sources into sinks and sinks into  sources and thus extending the ostracods abilty to survive as inferior competitors while existing in communites where predators are adapted specifically to the biophysics of ostracod response to the e-m field variations (since it also eats superior ostracod competitors (copeopods etc) while ostracods enjoy a different dispersal kinetics than its sexual community members.  We will thus show that that the realized niche is still smaller than the fundamental niche since new niche dimensions due to splitting in the e-m field by Earth magnetism and Earth motion are required when metacommunity competition is in play. In other wordspace has more biogeographic area than a simple calculation of the Earth’s surface would permit one to calculate.  This vindicates Croizat’s use of dispersal from what dispersal and thus metacommunty ideas (as here discussed) do not alter the Hutchinsonian niche but rather the importance of Darwin’s centered dispersal. Vicariance is thus speculated with the genetic bases of em splitting genes in ostracods and their specially adapated predators.


Holt, R.D. (1985). Population dynamics in two-patch environments: some anomalous consequences of an optimal habitat distribution. Theor. Popul. Biol., 28, 181208.

Pulliam, H.R. (1988). Sources, sinks, and population regulation. Am. Nat., 132, 652661.